• Shannon-Hartley Theorem

    April 24, 2012

    It was only around the turn of the century that information has existed as a scientific entity. Hartley wrote about it in 1928, as it became very important for the transmission of telegraph and telephone signals. By now, information is not just a natural quantity, it is a commercial quantity, bought and sold. We are [...]

  • Quadratic Residues in Z mod a Blum integer

    April 23, 2012

    Blum integers are integers n such that n is the product of two distinct primes p and q, where p and q are both 3 mod 4. The permutation given by x goes to x squared mod n, when restricted to the quadratic residues of the integers mod n, is the basis of the Blum-Blum-Shub [...]

  • Zero knowledge login

    April 16, 2012

    Some authentication mechanisms depend on a secret knowledge to identify the subject. For instance, knowledge of a password. To prove knowledge of the password, the subject produces the password. This requires that the authenticating party know the password as well, so the knowledge is not that secret. The authenticating party must be authenticated, else that [...]

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